Machine Learning Enabled Power-Aware Network-on-Chip Design

Dominic DiTomaso1,a, Ashif Sikder1,b, Avinash Kodi1,c and Ahmed Louri2
1Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio.
2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC.


Although Network-on-Chips (NoCs) are fast becoming pervasive as the interconnect fabric for multicore architectures and systems-on-chips, they still suffer from excessive static and dynamic power consumption. High dynamic power consumption results from switching and storing data within routers/links while excess static power is consumed when routers and links are not utilized for communication and yet have to be powered up. In this paper, we propose LESSON (Learning Enabled Sleepy Storage Links and Routers in NoCs) to reduce both static and dynamic power consumption by power-gating the links and routers at low network utilization and moving the data storage from within the routers to the links at high network utilization. As the network utilization increases from low-to-high, to accommodate more traffic, we design the same channels to flow traffic in either direction, thereby avoiding complex routing or look-ahead wake-up algorithms. Machine learning algorithms predict when to power-gate the channels and routers and when to increase the channel bandwidths such that power savings are maximized while performance penalty is minimized. Our results show that we can improve total network power consumption when compared to conventional NoC buffer designs by 85.6% and when compared with aggressive NoC buffer designs by 31.7%. Our predictor shows marginal performance penalties and by dynamically changing the direction of the links, we can improve packet latency by 14%.

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