A Wear-Leveling-Aware Counter Mode for Data Encryption in Non-Volatile Memories

Fangting Huang, Dan Fenga, Yu Hua and Wen Zhou
Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Computer, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.


Counter-mode encryption has been widely used to resist NVMs from malicious attacks, due to its proved security and high performance. However, this scheme suffers from the counter size versus re-encryption problem, where per-line counters must be relatively large to avoid counter overflow, or reencryption of the entire memory is required to ensure security. In order to address this problem, we propose a novel wearleveling- aware counter mode for data encryption, called Resetting Counter via Remapping (RCR). The basic idea behind RCR is to leverage wear-leveling remappings to reset the line counter. With carefully designed procedure, RCR avoids counter overflow with much smaller counter size. The salient features of RCR include low storage overhead of counters, high counter cache hit ratio, and no extra re-encryption overhead. Compared with state-of-the-art works, RCR obtains significant performance improvements, e.g., up to a 57% reduction in the IPC degradation, under the evaluation of 8 memory-intensive benchmarks from SPEC 2006.

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